Background Four cardiovascular hormones, ie, vessel dilator, long-acting natriuretic peptide, kaliuretic peptide, and atrial natriuretic peptide each at 1 mmol/L, decrease up to 97% of human breast, ovarian, pancreatic, colon, kidney, and prostate adenocarcinoma cells, as well as small cell and squamous cell lung cancer cells within 24 hours.
Methods Vessel dilator, long-acting natriuretic peptide, and kaliuretic peptide were investigated in vivo.
Results These cardiac hormones completely stop the growth of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas in athymic mice and decrease their tumor volume by 49%, 28%, and 11%, respectively, in 1 week. When these cardiac hormones are given subcutaneously for 1 month via osmotic pumps with the pumps changed weekly, up to 80% of the human pancreatic adenocarcinomas growing in athymic mice can be completely eliminated. Similarly, two thirds of human breast cancers in athymic mice can be eliminated without surgery with these cardiac hormones. Natriuretic peptide receptors A-, B-, and C- are present on the cancer cells to mediate atrial natriuretic peptide's effects.
Conclusions The cardiac hormones' anticancer mechanism of action(s) include a strong inhibition of mitogen (epidermal growth factor and insulin) activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 and as well as inhibition of basal extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 and upstream MEK 1/2 phosphorylation. They cause 80% to 90% inhibition of DNA synthesis in the nucleus where these cardiac hormones have been demonstrated to localize by immunocytochemical techniques.