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JIM: Your career has been marked by a number of different kinds of shifts, whether talking about the type of research you are doing - basic to more applied - or the positions that you have held - Division Head, Department Chair, and now the Director of the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences. Tell us a bit about the shifts that you have encountered in the course of your career.

Dr. Swain: My progression, career wise, is similar to many people and many physician-scientists. First of all, I continued my research career throughout all of these administrative responsibilities and changing administrative responsibilities as I moved up the professional ladder. Often, physician-scientists are called upon to lead programs because they understand both the basic science side and the clinical side and the translational clinical research in-between. So, when you look at Deans, most of them-at least in the past- have been physician-scientists. Chairs of Medicine, the same thing. Many times, at least research-intensive sort of people, because you have got to run three missions: research, clinical and education. And there is not any other kind of person who really understands all of those missions and can respect all of those missions. So, I think that most young people, physician-scientists-clinician-investigators, let's say, as they move up in their career will be asked to take on some administrative responsibility to run parts of an institution or an institution itself.

JIM: How, from your own personal experience, did these opportunities unfold before you? Were these things that developed in your environment or your surroundings that you were able to recognize and exploit on your own, or were these changes derived form opportunities that others brought to you?

Dr. Swain: Most times, it is that you are not actively seeking opportunities, but I think that …

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