Objective To quantify the association between asthma and the risk of preeclampsia.
Study Design In this case-control study, asthma history among 21 preeclamptic patients (7 with a history of asthma and 14 with no medical history) and 68 normotensive pregnant controls (8 with history of asthma and 60 with no medical history) at the authors' home institution was assessed by medical record abstraction. The final pathologic diagnosis of the placentas and the CBC and routine chemical analyses in blood and urine have been compared between the preeclamptic patients with asthma and the preeclamptic patients with no medical history.
Results Women with a history of asthma were at increased preeclampsia risk (OR 4.25 and 95% CI 1.324-13.641). There was no significant difference between the microscopic findings between the placentas from the preeclamptic patients (with or without a history of asthma). Women with a history of asthma that developed during their pregnancy an inflammatory process (resulting in an increase of WBC above the normal limit in blood) were at increased preeclampsia risk (OR 22 and 95% CI 1.857-260).
Conclusion Women with a history of asthma are at increased risk of preeclampsia, confirming the previous data from the literature, and the association of inflammation may increase even more the risk of asthmatic pregnant women to develop preeclampsia (proinflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, increased steroid production, mast cell RAA production, as well as other mechanisms that need further studies may be implicated).
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