Background Leptin is an up-regulator of cytokine-induced inflammatory responses. Several actions of leptin, including the stimulation of normal and tumor growth, migration and invasion, and enhancement of angiogenesis, suggest that this hormone can promote an aggressive cancer phenotype. This effect may involve activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor κB. Our recent findings with leptin in prostate cancer (The Cancer Journal, May/June, 2006) revealed a strong association of high serum leptin, short leptin receptor, and long leptin gene microsatellite alleles with high body mass index (BMI). We propose that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with low leptin levels in serum will be at low risk of prostate cancer.
Methods DNA from 48 HIV-infected patients over the age of 50 and receiving hihgly active antiretroviral therapy and 68 non-HIV-infected patients with prostate cancer were subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis. Serum leptin levels, BMI, leptin gene, and leptin receptor gene polymorphisms were studied in all HIV-infected males and prostate cancer patients. Genotyping was done on an ABI genetic analyzer (3100AVANT), and data were analyzed using SPSS 10.1 software.
Results Comparative analyses of serum leptin levels, BMI, and genotype frequencies of the leptin receptor (LEPR) and leptin gene (OBD7S1875) are summarized in Table 1. Only 1 (68 year old) of 48 HIV-infected males over the age of 50 in our patient population has been diagnosed with prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen values in the remainder as well within the normal range. The HIV patient with prostate cancer shows heterozygous genotypes for both the leptin gene and receptor polymorphisms found in patients with prostate cancer.
Conclusions These current data reveal low BMI, low serum leptin levels, long receptor alleles, and short gene alleles of leptin in HIV-infected males and correlates with a possible lower prevalence of prostate cancer in these patients. Leptin modulation and association with specific genotypes may relate to the progression of prostate cancer.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.