Article Text

  1. T. J. Clark1,
  2. F. H. Sheehan2,
  3. E. L. Bolson2
  1. 1University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA
  2. 2University of Washington Cardiovascular Research and Training Center, Department of Cardiology, Seattle, WA


Background Normative data provide a baseline from which deviation due to pathology can be measured. Multiple cardiac parameters have been shown to be good indicators of prognosis and of cardiac function. Previously published normative values differ based on modality. This present study presents data on a wide variety of cardiac parameters and attempts to provide rational explanations for the observed differences between our data and published norms.

Study Design and Methods Using 3-D echocardiography (3-DE) with the piecewise smooth surface subdivision (PSSS) reconstruction technique three-dimensional reconstructions of the left and right ventricular (LV and RV) endocardium and the mitral and tricuspid annuli (MA and TA) were obtained for 67 normal subjects or subsets thereof. Custom software was used to evaluate the volume, dimensions, and shape of these heart reconstructions.

Results In the combined, mixed-gender group we found LV end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) volumes/body surface area (BSA) of 76.5 ± 16.8 mL/m2 and 35.3 ± 14.1 mL/m2, respectively, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 56.1 ± 9.93%, RV ED and ES volumes/BSA of 93.2 ± 20.0 mL/m2 and 49.9 ± 13.5 mL/m2, respectively, and a RVEF of 47.3 ± 7.69%. We also present data on the geometry and shape of the LV, RV, mitral annulus, and tricuspid annulus. There was no clear pattern of understatement or overstatement of volumes or dimensions compared with data from other modalities.

Conclusion Data obtained on cardiac parameters through 3-DE and the PSSS reconstruction method are generally consistent with those obtained through other imaging modalities, and observed variance in data can largely be accounted for through examination of the physics or protocol of each modality.

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