Plasma levels of natriuretic peptides are elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease owing to impairment of renal function, hypertension, hypervolemia, and/or concomitant heart disease. Proteinuria and/or immunosuppression also contribute to enhanced plasma levels and increased urinary excretion of natriuretic peptides. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and particularly brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are linked independently to left ventricular mass and function and predict total and cardiovascular mortality. ANP and BNP decrease significantly during hemodialysis treatment but increase again during the interdialytic interval. Intraperitoneal administration of ANP decreases peritoneal fluid and glucose absorption, as well as lymphatic flow rate. Successful kidney transplant normalizes the plasma levels of natriuretic peptides in the majority of patients. In experimental animals but not in humans, ANP administration protects against ischemic acute renal failure. Since proANP31-67 peptide does not cause hypotension, this vessel dilator may protect the kidney during acute renal failure by intrarenal vasodilation and stimulation of endogenous prostaglandin E2 synthesis.