Cigarette smoking, an established cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factor, is known to impair pulsatile arterial function. However, information is scant in this regard among asymptomatic young adult former smokers. As part of the Bogalusa Heart Study, we examined the arterial pulsatile function of 277 smokers (69% white and 47% male) and 104 former smokers (81% white and 42% male) aged 18 to 44 years. Arterial pulsatile function was measured noninvasively in terms of large artery (capacitive) compliance, small artery (oscillatory) compliance, and systemic vascular resistance by radial artery pressure pulse contour analysis. Former smokers vs. smokers had higher body mass index (29.6 vs. 27.7 kg/m2, p = .01), after adjusting for age, race, and sex; comparable levels of blood pressure and lipoprotein cholesterols and higher levels of glucose (94.8 vs. 85.3 mg/dL, p = .01) and insulin (1.5 vs. 1.1 μU/mL, p = .01), after adjusting for age, race, sex, and BMI. With respect of measures of pulsatile arterial function, former smokers vs. smokers had similar large artery compliance (15.1 vs. 15.1 mL/mm Hg × 10), higher small artery compliance (6.5 vs. 5.9 mL/mm Hg × 100, p = .001), and lower systemic vascular resistance (1292.2 vs. 1376.9 dyn.sec.cm-5, p = .002), after adjusting for race, sex, and age. A comparison of current smokers vs. those who quit less than 10 years vs. those who quit at least 10 years or more showed increases in small artery compliance (p for trend = .02) and decreases in systemic vascular resistance (p for trend = .02) with increasing years of smoking cessation, after adjusting for race, sex, and age. The odds ratio of smokers vs. former smokers for having adverse small artery compliance (bottom 10 percentile) and systemic vascular resistance (top 10 percentile) were, respectively, 3.0 (p = .02) and 4.3 (p = .01), independent of race, sex, age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These findings, although cross-sectional in nature, indicate the potential for improvement in arterial wall dynamics after smoking cessation.