Purpose To analyze the incidence of gastroschisis in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, using data from the recently established Kentucky Birth Surveillance Registry (KBSR).
Methods Vital statistics data (reports of live births, stillbirths, and deaths) from the years 1998-2001 were confirmed by KBSR personnel. While gastroschisis and omphalocele are reported by hospitals using a single code, these defects are differentiated in the registry database. Data items included maternal age, gravidity, parity, race, initiation of prenatal care, use of tobacco or other drugs, and zip code of residence.
Results There were 95 cases of gastroschisis: 86 liveborn and 9 stillborn. The overall incidence in KY during this period was 4.3/10,000 births, ˜ 1.3 times the average reported by the CDC. When comparing KY rates to 12 states reporting gastroschisis separately from omphalocele, only 2 reported higher rates (AR and MI). The rate among teen mothers (< 20 years) was ˜ 3 times that of the overall population (12.5/10,000) and ˜ 8 times that of women over 24 (1.6/10,000), consistent with reports from other states and some international groups. Over half of all cases were to primiparous mothers and 28% of all cases were born to mothers who admitted smoking during pregnancy. Cluster analysis was inconclusive due to the large number of counties with single cases.
Conclusions The incidence of gastroschisis in KY is ˜ 30% higher than the national average and is consistent with the higher teen birth rate in KY. Tobacco use among pregnant women in KY is estimated to be almost twice that of the US as a whole (23.4% vs. 12%) and was present in 28% of the cases of gastroschisis.