Serum autoantibodies to the glycolytic enzyme enolase have been reported in a diverse range of inflammatory, degenerative, and psychiatric disorders. Diseases in which these antibodies have been reported in high incidence include autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (80%, 35 of 44), primary (69%, 60 of 87), and secondary (58%, 14 of 24) membranous nephropathy, cancer-associated retinopathy (68.8%, 11 of 16), autoimmune hepatitis type 1 (60%, 12 of 20), mixed cryoglobulinemia with renal involvement (63.6%, seven of 11), cystoid macular edema (60%, six of 10), and endometriosis (50%, 21 of 41). In autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 patients, all had chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with demonstrated antibody reactivity to candida enolase, which is suggestive of cross reactivity or epitope mimicry. Formation of autoantibodies to enolase may be a normal process, with reported incidence in apparently healthy subjects ranging from 0% (zero of 91) to 11.7% (seven of 60). Nonetheless, we suggest that excessive production of these autoantibodies, which are generated as a consequence of uptake of enolase by antigen-presenting cells and subsequent B cell activation, can potentially initiate tissue injury as a result of immune complex deposition.